Although patients with insomnia often show a discrepancy between self‐reported and objective sleep parameters, the role of and change in this phenomenon during treatment remain unclear. The present study aimed to assess the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia on subjective and objective sleep discrepancy of total sleep time, sleep‐onset latency and wake after sleep onset. The total sleep time discrepancy was also assessed across the entire therapy. The second aim was to examine the treatment outcome of two insomnia groups differing in sleep perception. Thirty‐six adults with insomnia (mean age = 46.7 years, SD = 13.9; 22 females) were enrolled in the final analyses. Patients underwent a 6‐week group cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia programme. Sleep diary and actigraphy measurements were obtained during the therapy. Patients who underestimated total sleep time (n = 16; underestimating group) were compared with patients who accurately perceived or overestimated total sleep time (n = 20; accurate/overestimating group). After cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, a significant decrease of total sleep time and sleep‐onset latency discrepancy was observed without a change in wake after sleep onset discrepancy in the total sample. Only the underestimating group reported decreased sleep‐onset latency discrepancy after the treatment, whereas total sleep time discrepancy significantly changed in both groups. The underestimating group showed a significant decrease of total sleep time discrepancy from Week 1 to Week 2 when the sleep restriction was implemented, whereas the accurate/overestimating group showed the first significant change at Week 4. In conclusion, both groups differing in sleep perception responded similarly to cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, although different In conclusion, both groups differing in sleep perception responded similarly to cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, although different therapeutic components could play important roles in each group. components could play important roles in each group.