Antiseizure medications (ASMs) may affect nocturnal sleep and daytime vigilance. Perampanel (PER), a third-generation ASM, showed to improve nocturnal sleep in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Although ASMs can have beneficial effects on nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness, no study investigated the effect of PER on both sleep–wake cycle and daytime sleepiness. Therefore, this study aimed to objectively evaluate the sleep–wake cycle and daytime sleepiness in PWE treated with PER as adjunctive therapy.
This prospective study included adult PWE who received PER as add-on treatment. Sleep–wake cycle was assessed through actigraphic monitoring and daytime sleepiness by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) performed at the end of the actigraphic recording. All patients performed both tests at baseline and at 6-month follow-up.
Ten patients (mean age: 44.50 ± 22.71 years, 50.0% female) were included. The mean monthly seizure frequency was 3.20 ± 5.94. Six of ten patients started PER as a first add-on treatment. The final PER dose was 5.11 ± 2.02 mg/day, and nine of ten patients achieved seizure freedom at follow-up. There was a significant decrease in mean monthly seizure frequency from baseline to follow-up (p = 0.004). No significant changes were found in the sleep–wake cycle parameters. An increase in sleep latency mean was observed at MSLT at 6-month follow-up (p = 0.005).
This study confirms that adjunctive PER is effective on seizures without pathologically change of the sleep–wake cycle in PWE and can even improve daytime sleepiness. This effect can be mediated by the achievement of seizure control. Therefore, PER may be promising in PWE with sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness.