Over the past 40 years, actigraphy has been used to study rest-activity patterns in circadian rhythm and sleep research. Furthermore, considering its simplicity of use, there is a growing interest in the analysis of large population-based samples, using actigraphy. Here, we introduce pyActigraphy, a comprehensive toolbox for data visualization and analysis including multiple sleep detection algorithms and rest-activity rhythm variables. This open-source python package implements methods to read multiple data formats, quantify various properties of rest-activity rhythms, visualize sleep agendas, automatically detect rest periods and perform more advanced signal processing analyses. The development of this package aims to pave the way towards the establishment of a comprehensive open-source software suite, supported by a community of both developers and researchers, that would provide all the necessary tools for in-depth and large scale actigraphy data analyses.