This study aims to compare soluble (pro)renin receptor [s(P)RR] levels between black and white adults and to explore the associations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function with s(P)RR in the total and ethnicity-stratified groups. The study sample included 1172 apparently healthy black (n = 587) and white (n = 585) participants of the African-PREDICT study aged 20–30 years. Echocardiography was performed to determine relative wall thickness (RWT), LV mass index, LV ejection fraction and stroke volume index (SVi). s(P)RR was analyzed from serum samples, while plasma renin activity-surrogate (PRA-S) and eq angiotensin II were determined using the RAS™ Fingerprint. s(P)RR was higher in the white participants compared to the black participants (p < 0.001). In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, we observed a positive association between RWT and s(P)RR (β = 0.141; p = 0.005) and negative associations of LV ejection fraction (β = −0.123; p = 0.016) and SVi (β = −0.144; p = 0.004) with s(P)RR only in white adults. Higher s(P)RR observed in white vs. black participants was associated with higher RWT and poorer LV function only in young white adults but not in their black counterparts. These results suggest that s(P)RR may contribute to LV remodeling and dysfunction in white populations due to its role in volume–pressure regulation and its proinflammatory as well as profibrotic effects.