We investigated the longitudinal associations of physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with arterial health among children. In our primary analyses, we investigated 245 children (girls 51.8%) aged 6-9 years participating in the baseline examinations who had data on arterial health at 2-year follow-up. We also utilized a subsample of 90 children who had a complete arterial health data at baseline and 2-year follow-up. ST (≤1.5 METs), light PA (>1.5-4 METs), moderate PA (>4-7 METs), vigorous PA (>7METs), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA, >4 METs) were assessed by combined movement and heart rate monitoring and CRF by maximal exercise testing on a cycle ergometer at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Stiffness index (SI) as a measure of arterial stiffness and change in reflection index during exercise test (DRI) as a measure of arterial dilation capacity were assessed by pulse contour analysis. Two-year change in vigorous PA was associated with DRI in boys but not in girls (p=0.021 for interaction). In a subsample analyses, 2-year changes in MPA, VPA, and MVPA were inversely associated with 2-year change in SI. In conclusion, promoting PA at higher intensities may confer larger benefits on arterial health than reducing ST and increasing LPA.