The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about to the total locomotor activity behavior in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) through the comparison with domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Five maned wolves housed individually in 4 m2 dens with nest boxes, and runs allowing them to move in outdoors area of 250 m2 with natural vegetation; and five Beagles dogs living individually in a 12 m2 box with an outside area of 50 m2, were subjected to natural light-dark (L/D) cycle (maned wolves: 15L/9D; dogs 14L/10D) and environmental conditions (maned wolves: 22-26°C, 64Rh%; dogs 17-23°C, 65Rh%). In each animal the monitoring of locomotor activity was performed for 2 days by means of an activity data logger (Actiwatch Cambridge Neurotechnology, Cambridge, UK), applied on a neck collar. Data were analyzed by the single Cosinor method. At the obtained rhythmic parameters two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to verify differences due to day of monitoring and species. Maned wolves showed a nocturnal daily rhythm of locomotor activity. Dogs showed a diurnal daily rhythm of locomotor activity. The diurnality index was 0.29 and 0.93, respectively for maned wolves and dogs. The two studied species showed statistically difference in mesor and amplitude of rhythm, higher in maned wolves (mesor:3256.64±364.87 arbitrary unit; amplitude:3726.32±327.50 arbitrary unit) than dogs (mesor:414.06±9.68 arbitrary unit; amplitude:502.35±18.78 arbitrary unit).
We can claim that maned wolves, housed in captivity is more active than dogs and showed an oppose daily rhythm of locomotor activity.