Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is related to an increased fracture risk and low bone turnover. However, the mechanisms are not elucidated. In the present study we investigate the association between glycemic variability and bone turnover markers.
100 participants with T2D and 100 age and gender matched controls were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants with T2D were equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor for 3 days (CGMS iPro Continuous Glucose Recorder; Medtronic MiniMed). The dawn glucose levels were defined as a morning period starting 1 h before breakfast ending 1 h post ingestion. On all participants serum (s)-C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX), s-procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide (P1NP), and s-sclerostin were measured.
Participants with T2D displayed significantly lower levels of the bone resorption marker s-CTX and the bone formation marker s-P1NP compared to controls. S-CTX was significantly negatively associated with the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and the dawn glucose levels whereas s-P1NP only was significantly negatively associated with the dawn glucose levels while it was borderline significantly associated with MAGE (p = 0.05). S-CTX and s-P1NP were significantly lower among the 50% with the highest dawn glucose levels compared to the 50% lowest dawn glucose levels also after adjustment for age, gender, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and body mass index (BMI).
We observed that the amplitude of glycemic excursions and rise in dawn glucose was negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Future research is needed to determine whether reduction of the amplitude of glycemic excursions increase bone turnover markers.