Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed in France. While the incidence of intraoperative complications affecting visual prognosis is extremely low, given the large number of patients operated on, the absolute number of patients affected by complications is quite high. Complication rates are significantly higher when ophthalmology residents (ORs) perform the surgery. Although lack of experience remains the main risk factor, sleep deprivation may adversely affect ORs’ successful surgery rate. The value of the EyeSi® surgical simulator in initial training has been demonstrated to increase cataract surgery safety through the transfer of surgical skills from the simulator to the operating room. However, there is no consensus regarding how much training is needed before the first-time ORs are allowed to operate. There is also no scientific evidence that sleep deprivation is associated with a decrease in surgical performance. Establishing a validated protocol for cataract surgery training using the EyeSi surgical simulator (referred to further as the EyeSi) and identifying risk factors for intraoperative complications related to sleep deprivation will improve cataract surgery safety and lead to the reorganization of our healthcare systems.