Background
Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity during free-living conditions.

Objective
To compare objectively measured psychomotor activity in patients with unipolar and bipolar disorder in a remitted or mild/moderate depressive state. Further, both groups were compared to a healthy control group.

Methods
A cross-sectional study of outpatients suffering from unipolar (n = 20) and bipolar (n = 18) disorder and healthy controls (n = 31), aged 18–60 years. For three consecutive days a combined acceleration (m/s2) and heart rate (beats per minute) monitoring was used in conjunction with a step test to estimate activity energy expenditure (J/min/kg) as measures of psychomotor activity and physical fitness.

Results
Overall score on Hamilton-17 items ranged between 0 and 22. Patients had higher sleeping heart rate (p < 0.001), lower fitness (p = 0.02), lower acceleration (p = 0.004), and lower activity energy expenditure (p = 0.004) compared to controls. Comparing unipolar and bipolar patients and adjusting for differences in Hamilton-17 revealed lower acceleration (p = 0.01) and activity energy expenditure in bipolar patients (p = 0.02); the difference was most prominent in the morning.

Conclusions
Electronic monitoring of psychomotor activity may be a promising additional tool in the distinction between unipolar and bipolar affective disorder when patients present in a remitted or depressive state.

Direct Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.020

Journal: Journal of affective disorders. 2012 Dec 10;141(2-3):457-63

Keywords: affective disorder, bipolar affective disorder, energy expenditure, Heart Rate, psychomotor activity, unipolar affective disorder,

Applications: Energy Expenditure,

CamNtech Reference: AH12027

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