Prediction equations of energy expenditure (EE) using accelerometers and miniaturized heart rate (HR) monitors have been developed in older children and adults but not in preschool-aged children. Because the relationships between accelerometer counts (ACs), HR, and EE are confounded by growth and maturation, age-specific EE prediction equations are required. We used advanced technology (fast-response room calorimetry, Actiheart and Actigraph accelerometers, and miniaturized HR monitors) and sophisticated mathematical modeling [cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS)] to develop models for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE in 69 preschool-aged children. CSTS and MARS models were developed by using participant characteristics (gender, age, weight, height), Actiheart (HR+AC_x) or ActiGraph parameters (AC_x, AC_y, AC_z, steps, posture) [x, y, and z represent the directional axes of the accelerometers], and their significant 1- and 2-min lag and lead values, and significant interactions. Relative to EE measured by calorimetry, mean percentage errors predicting awake EE (−1.1 ± 8.7%, 0.3 ± 6.9%, and −0.2 ± 6.9%) with CSTS models were slightly higher than with MARS models (−0.7 ± 6.0%, 0.3 ± 4.8%, and −0.6 ± 4.6%) for Actiheart, ActiGraph, and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. Predicted awake EE values were within ±10% for 81–87% of individuals for CSTS models and for 91–98% of individuals for MARS models. Concordance correlation coefficients were 0.936, 0.931, and 0.943 for CSTS EE models and 0.946, 0.948, and 0.940 for MARS EE models for Actiheart, ActiGraph, and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. CSTS and MARS models should prove useful in capturing the complex dynamics of EE and movement that are characteristic of preschool-aged children.

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Journal: The Journal of nutrition. 2013 Jan 1;143(1):114-22.

Keywords: ActiGraph, children. pre-schoolers, energy expenditure, energy metabolism, Heart Rate, indirect calorimetry,

Applications: Energy Expenditure,

CamNtech Reference: AH13007

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