Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low‐grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long‐term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed.
Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic‐type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation‐related parameters.
Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long‐term significant effects (P < 0.001) on adipose gene expression were found for toll‐like receptor 4 (decreased at 24 months) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (increased at 24 months) in both groups. Serum interleukin 6 (IL‐6) and tumor necrosis factor α levels were decreased at 24 months in both groups (P < 0.001) with a significant diet‐by‐time interaction for serum IL‐6 (P = 0.022). High‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein was decreased in the PD group at 24 months (P = 0.001).
A reduction of abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation‐related adipose gene expression.