Little is known about the relationships of dietary factors, physical activity, and sedentary behavior to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations among prepubertal children. Therefore, we studied the associations of these lifestyle factors with serum DHEAS and IGF-1 in children.
Design and subjects
Cross-sectional analysis of a population sample of 431 prepubertal children aged 6-9 years.
Assessment of dietary factors by food records and physical activity and sedentary behavior by a combined heart rate and movement monitor and a questionnaire. Measurement of serum DHEAS and IGF-1.
Consumption of low-fiber grain products (standardized regression coefficient β=0.118, P=0.017) and intake of vegetable protein (β=0.100, P=0.045) were positively and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (β=-0.117, P=0.018) was inversely associated with DHEAS after adjustment for sex, age, and body fat percentage. Energy intake (β=0.160, P=0.001) was positively associated with IGF-1 adjusting for sex, age, and body fat percentage. Vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with DHEAS after adjustment for sex and age (β=-0.120, P=0.027), and total (β=-0.137, P=0.007), moderate (β=-0.130, P=0.012), vigorous (β=-0.136, P=0.011), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (β=-0.160, P=0.003) were inversely and total sedentary behavior (β=0.151, P=0.003) was positively associated with IGF-1 adjusting for sex and age. None of physical activity measures was associated with DHEAS or IGF-1 after additional adjustment for body fat percentage.
Lifestyle factors have weak and moderate associations with biochemical markers of adrenarche in prepubertal children. These associations indicate body fat independent and dependent influences of diet and physical activity, respectively.