Publications

CamNtech Research Library

CamNtech products have been trusted by specialist researchers for over 25 years.

Our research library contains peer reviewed publications citing the use of our devices.

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Found 57 Results

The housing system influences daily total locomotor activity (TLA) in dairy cows

The daily pattern of total locomotor activity (TLA) of cattle kept in different housing conditions was investigated in order to evaluate whether TLA could be used as a useful index of animal welfare. Twenty Modicana cattle were divided into two equal groups: Group A, housed in a grazing area of 5 hectare, and Group B, […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: July 6, 2022


Evaluation of locomotor activity in female Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae, Gray 1870) in response to artificial photoperiod and temperature treatments

Turtles as many other reptiles are capable of orientating their bodies toward the sun. This conduct requires the presence of an internal biological chronometer in the organism that regulates this behavior. Thus, a description of the internal clock in these reptiles is of interest. The assessment of locomotor activity can be considered a reliable indicator […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 29, 2022


Influence of Moon Luminosity, Seasonality, Sex and Weather Conditions on the Activity Levels of the Nocturnal Javan Slow Loris

The activity patterns of mammals depend on environmental changes (e.g., moon luminosity, food availability, weather) and endogenous rhythms. Behavioral observations are traditionally used to estimate the activity patterns of animals, but low visibility and the cryptic nature of some species entail that, in certain conditions, the animal is visible only for around 60% of the […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 27, 2022


Simultaneous recording of subcutaneous temperature and total locomotor activity in Bos-Taurus and Bos-Indicus raised in subtropical region of Argentina

In this study, total locomotor activity and subcutaneous temperature was evaluated in 18 clinically healthy females’ cows. All cows were divided in 3 groups: group A1 was constituted by 6 Holstein Bos-taurus, group A2 by 6 Herford females’ cows Bos-Taurus and group B was constituted by 6 females Bradford Bos-indicus cows. Data recording of total […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 13, 2022


Aromatase Inhibition Eliminates Sexual Receptivity Without Enhancing Weight Gain in Ovariectomized Marmoset Monkeys

Context Ovarian estradiol supports female sexual behavior and metabolic function. While ovariectomy (OVX) in rodents abolishes sexual behavior and enables obesity, OVX in nonhuman primates decreases, but does not abolish, sexual behavior, and inconsistently alters weight gain. Objective We hypothesize that extra-ovarian estradiol provides key support for both functions, and to test this idea, we […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: April 22, 2022


Role of light/dark schedules on daily pattern of total locomotor activity in wild and domestic felids

Circadian rhythms of the physiological and behavioral variability are an inherent property of mammals, and closely related to environmental factors. Light is the best-known environmental entrainment of the circadian pacemaker. The aim of the present study was to investigate the light/dark (L/D) cycle role on the entrainment of the total locomotor activity daily rhythm recorded […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 4, 2022


Amplitude of the daily pattern of rest–activity in different species of Leopardus kept in captivity

Closer examination of the diurnal or nocturnal nature of wildlife species improves the knowledge necessary for landscape identity and biodiversity preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of total locomotor activity in wild felids of several species of Leopardus of similar body weight housed in captivity: Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi), […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 8, 2022


Dopamine D3 Receptor Ligand Suppresses the Expression of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Nonhuman Primate Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex multisystem, chronic and so far incurable disease with significant unmet medical needs. The incidence of PD increases with aging and the expected burden will continue to escalate with our aging population. Since its discovery in the 1961 levodopa remains the gold standard pharmacotherapy for PD. However, the progressive nature […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: August 11, 2021


Gibbon sleep quantified: the influence of lunar phase and meteorological variables on activity in Hylobates moloch and Hylobates pileatus

Sleep in the primate order remains understudied, with quantitative estimates of sleep duration available for less than 10% of primate species. Even fewer species have had their sleep synchronously quantified with meteorological data, which have been shown to influence sleep–wake regulatory behaviors. We report the first sleep duration estimates in two captive gibbon species, the […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: May 30, 2021


Clock genes determination in whole blood in goats housed under a long light cycle

An innate 24 h circadian clock drives various behavioral processes via expression of clock genes that regulate circadian rhythmicity and temporal signals. Elucidating the gene expression in goats may contribute to improving the knowledge of the regulation of circadian rhythms in this species. Five nonpregnant and nonlactating Maltese goats with no evidence of disease were […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: May 15, 2021


Lunar periodic modulation of the circadian activity rhythm in a wild North Colombian night monkey (Aotus griseimembra)

South American night monkeys (genus Aotus) are the only nocturnal simian primates. Early activity recordings in North Colombian A. griseimembra monkeys kept under semi-natural conditions and extensive chronobiological studies carried out in laboratory settings revealed a strictly nocturnal behavior and strong activity enhancing (disinhibiting) effects of moonlight or corresponding luminosities during the dark time. To […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 28, 2021


Interspecies comparison of daily total locomotor activity between maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) maintained in captivity

The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about to the total locomotor activity behavior in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) through the comparison with domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Five maned wolves housed individually in 4 m2 dens with nest boxes, and runs allowing them to move in outdoors area of 250 m2 with […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 18, 2021


Evaluation of the patterns of daily total locomotor activity in maned wolf (Chryosocyon brachyurus) maintained in captivity

The aim of this study was to evaluate the daily total locomotor activity in captive Chrysocyon brachyurus. Three maned wolves were housed individually under natural light–dark cycle and environmental conditions. In each animal, locomotor activity was monitoored for 30 days by means of an activity data logger (Actiwatch Cambridge©Neurotechnology, Cambridge, UK), applied on a neck […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 16, 2021


Pharmacokinetics And Clinical Effects Of A Single Oral Dose Of Trazodone In The Domestic Goat (Capra Hircus) As A Model For Wild Ruminants

Trazodone is an antianxiety medication commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Stress-related trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in wild ruminant species. Trazodone could reduce stress and allow safer capture and handling, thus having a positive effect on their welfare. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical effects […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 12, 2021


Use of the Actiwatch-Mini® in dog safety studies as an early indicator for drug-induced behavioural changes

Introduction Clinical observations are routinely used to address drug-induced behavioural changes in dogs. To deal with the limitations of this methodology, we evaluated Actiwatch-Mini® as a tool to monitor continuously locomotor activity in dogs and to provide objective parameters that could be linked to behavioural changes after compound administration. Methods Eight Beagles were equipped with […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 26, 2020


Age-related cognitive decline in baboons: modeling the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

The aging of brain cells and synaptic loss are the major underlying pathophysiological processes contributing to the progressive decline in cognitive functions and Alzheimer’s disease. The difference in cognitive performances observed between adult and aged subjects across species highlights the decline of brain systems with age. The inflection point in age-related cognitive decline is important […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: May 19, 2020


Behavioral and physiological processes in horses and their linkage with peripheral clock gene expression: A preliminary study

Behavioral and physiological processes have an innate 24-h cycle driven by the circadian master clock, which uses clock genes to generate rhythmicity and distribute temporal signals. Elucidating the blood gene expression in relation to the better known circadian rhythms in horses may contribute to improve the knowledge on the peripheral circadian rhythm control in this […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: August 30, 2019


Environment shapes sleep patterns in a wild nocturnal primate

Among primates, the suborder Haplorhini is considered to have evolved a consolidated monophasic sleep pattern, with diurnal species requiring a shorter sleep duration than nocturnal species. Only a few primate species have been systematically studied in their natural habitat where environmental variables, including temperature and light, have a major influence on sleep and activity patterns. […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: July 9, 2019


Cross-sectional comparison of health-span phenotypes in young versus geriatric marmosets.

The development of the marmoset as a translational model for healthspan and lifespan studies relies on the characterization of health parameters in young and geriatric marmosets. This cross-sectional study examined health phenotypes in marmosets for five domains of interest for human health and aging: mobility, cognition, metabolism, homeostasis, and immune function. Geriatric marmosets were found […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 21, 2019


Determination of the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of trazodone and its effect on the activity level of domestic pigeons (Columba livia)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of trazodone and its effect on the activity of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult male domestic pigeons. PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 experiments, birds received orally administered trazodone at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg to determine the dose for […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 1, 2019


Circadian rhythms of melatonin and behaviour in juvenile sheep in field conditions: Effects of photoperiod, environment and weaning

Entrainment of circadian rhythms (CR) to the light dark cycle has been well described under controlled, experimental conditions. However, studies in rodents have reported that rhythms in the laboratory are not always reproduced under field conditions. The aim of this study was to characterise the CR of sheep maintained under conditions of standard UK farm […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: October 1, 2018


Charting the onset of Parkinson-like motor and non-motor symptoms in nonhuman primate model of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease increasingly affecting our aging population. Remarkable advances have been made in developing novel therapies to control symptoms, halt or cure the disease, ranging from physiotherapy and small molecules to cell and gene therapy. This progress was enabled by the existence of reliable animal models. The nonhuman primate model […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: August 23, 2018


Ovarian estradiol supports sexual behavior but not energy homeostasis in female marmoset monkeys

Objective In adult female rodents, ovarian estradiol (E2) regulates body weight, adiposity, energy balance, physical activity, glucose-insulin homeodynamics, and lipid metabolism, while protecting against diet-induced obesity. The same E2 actions are presumed to occur in primates, but confirmatory studies have been lacking. Methods We investigated the consequences of ovariectomy (OVX) and E2 replacement in female […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: July 18, 2018


The seasonal feeding ecology of the Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus)

Objectives To describe the strategy employed by exudativorous primates during seasonal shifts in food abundance using the Javan slow loris as a model. Males and females may cope differently as well as exploit fallback foods in different proportions. Materials and methods Observing 15 free ranging Javan slow lorises over a year, we quantified their seasonal […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 24, 2017


Intrasubject and intersubject variabilities in the daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in horses

The observation of locomotor activity and resting behavior is used to determine time budgets, which may give some indication for the assessment of horses’ welfare concerning management and housing. The aim of this study was to investigate total locomotor activity (TLA) daily rhythm in athletic horses (Thoroughbred, Standardbred, and Italian Saddle), with special attention to […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 13, 2016


Causal link of total locomotor activity, melatonin and rectal temperature daily rhythm in small ruminants

To improve the knowledge in chronophysiology we investigated the causal link between the most important physiological variable studied until now; ten Sarda ewes and ten Sarda goats, pluriparus not pregnant and no lactating, were used. Animals were housed under natural environmental conditions in a common stall, alfalfa hay and water were available ad libitum. Each […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 7, 2016


Metabolic consequences of long-term rapamycin exposure on common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan in rodent models, but the effects on metabolic health and function have been widely debated in both clinical and translational trials. Prior to rapamycin being used as a treatment to extend both lifespan and healthspan in the human population, it is vital to assess the side effects of […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: November 13, 2015


Monitoring of total locomotor activity in mares during the prepartum and postpartum period

The aim of this study was to investigate the daily rhythms of total locomotor activity (TLA) in mares during the prepartum and postpartum periods and the existence of these rhythms at the time of birth in neonatal foals. For this purpose, TLA was recorded in 9 mares starting from the third day preceding the date […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 16, 2015


Characterization of long-term motor deficits in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson’s disease in the common marmoset

Research aimed at developing new therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) critically depend on valid animal models of the disease that allows for repeated testing of motor disabilities over extended time periods. We here present an extensive characterization of a wide range of motor symptoms in the 6-OHDA marmoset model of PD when tested over several […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: April 28, 2015


Technical note: Validation of an automatic recording system to assess behavioural activity level in sheep (Ovis aries)

The welfare of an individual can be assessed by monitoring behavioural changes, such as inactivity, that may indicate injury or disease. In this study we validated the Actiwatch Mini® activity monitor (AM) for automatic recording of behavioural activity levels of nine Texel ewes. The AM devices were attached to collars placed around the necks of […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: April 15, 2015


Different daily patterns of serum cortisol and locomotor activity rhythm in horses under natural photoperiod

The goal of the present study was to investigate the daily pattern of serum cortisol rhythm in relation to the total locomotor activity in horses housed in an individual box under a 12-hour light-dark cycle. Blood samples were collected at 3-hour intervals over a 48-hour period via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: April 1, 2015


Meal size and feeding management strategies influence the daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in horses (Equus caballus)

Keeping and management of horses can induce changes to instinctive and innate behavioural patterns. We investigated the effect of five different management conditions in five groups of horses. All groups were housed in individual boxes under natural environmental and lighting conditions. They were fed three times a day (07:00, 12:30 and 20:00) and had free […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 30, 2015


Total locomotor activity and serum cortisol levels: daily rhythm in dogs

No abstract

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: October 20, 2014


Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington’s disease sheep are unmasked by social environment

Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: July 1, 2014


Comparison of daily distribution of rest/activity in companion cats and dogs

The aim of this study was to characterize cats and dogs’ locomotor activity patterns in relation to housing conditions and owner interaction. Five adult cats and five adult dogs belonging to ten different owners were enrolled in the study. Animals were housed in apartments having daily access to the garden. Total locomotor activity (TLA) was […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 17, 2014


Effect of housing conditions and owner’s schedule on daily total locomotor activity in dogs (Canis familiaris).

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of housing conditions on daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in dogs. Seven clinically healthy dogs (Canis familiaris) were used and divided into two groups: Group A lived with its owner in indoor environment, Group B housed in individual box of 140 × 200 cm. Each dog was […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 4, 2013


Influence of time of food administration on daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in ponies

The activity rhythm can be entrained by nonphotic cues, especially food availability. Daily feeding schedules can act as “Zeitgeber” to synchronize the circadian system. In this study, the authors evaluated the influence of different feeding schedules on the daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in ponies. Six clinically healthy Shetland ponies were kept under natural […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 1, 2013


Daily rhythm of total activity pattern in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) maintained in two different housing conditions

Housing conditions and human presence have been shown to have an influence on daily amount of activity in herbivores. Only few studies on the behavior of cats and interactions between cat and human were conducted, and these few works are referred to cats housed in laboratories. At the same way, only few and conflicting reports […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 5, 2013


Toll-Like Receptor Agonists as Antecedent Therapy for Ischemic Brain Injury: Advancing Preclinical Studies to the Nonhuman Primate

Antecedent therapy for ischemic brain injury has the potential to protect a large, high-risk patient population from the devastating effects of cerebral ischemia associated with cardiac surgery. Substantial evidence has shown that preconditioning with a modestly damaging stimulus induces powerful endogenous neuroprotection. Pharmacological agents that stimulate toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce robust neuroprotective effects as preconditioning […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 2, 2012


Effect of different farming management on daily total locomotor activity in sheep

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different housing conditions and feeding schedules on the daily rhythm of total locomotor activity (TLA) in sheep. A total of 15 sheep, divided into 3 equal groups, were used. Group A was kept in a grazing area, group B in a box and was […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 22, 2011


Comparison between circadian motor activity in pony and horse

In this study we investigated the influence of body mass on the daily rhythm of total motor activity in ponies and horses. Six clinically healthy Shetland pony breed with a body mass of 180 ± 30 kg and six healthy horses Sella Italiana breed with a body mass of 530 ± 20 kg were used. […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: June 1, 2011


Daily rhythms of rectal temperature and total locomotor activity in trained and untrained horses

In this study the authors evaluated the influence of physical activity on the daily rhythm of rectal temperature and total locomotor activity in untrained and trained horses. Rectal temperature and locomotor activity of 12 Italian saddle horses, 6 untrained (group A) and 6 trained (group B), was recorded for 48 h. Rectal temperature was recorded […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 24, 2011


Nycthemeral rhythms of total locomotor activity and oxidative markers in horse

The aim of this study was to investigate the nycthemeral rhythm of total locomotor activity (TLA) in horse and the possible involvement of the daily organization of rest/activity cycles in the fluctuation of the redox state. For this purpose we recorded TLA and determined oxidative markers in ten clinically healthy Italian Saddle horses. TLA was […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 18, 2011


A comparison of daily total locomotor activity between the lactation and the dry period in dairy cattle

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of farming management on the total locomotor activity (TLA) behaviour in dairy cattle. We recorded 24 h/day TLA in five not pregnant Holstein Friesian cows during parts of the lactation and dry periods, by means of an activity monitoring system (Actiwatch mini®) for seven days […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 1, 2011


The effect of photic entrainment and restricted feeding on food anticipatory activity in Ovis aries

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light/dark (L/D) cycle, associated with restricted feeding, on total daily locomotor activity in sheep. Eight clinically healthy Comisana ewes were housed individually in a soundproof box and subjected to three different light and feeding periods. During period 1 (light on 8:00; light off 20:00) […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: August 21, 2010


Circadian rhythms of redox states and total locomotor activity in dairy cattle

We want to study the circadian rhythm of dROMs and anti-oxidative power in dairy cattle during dry period and the possible involvement of the circadian organization of rest/activity cycles in the fluctuation of redox state. For this purpose we recorded TLA in five clinically healthy Bruna Italian dairy cattle by means of an actigraphy-based data […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: February 1, 2010


Photic and non‐photic entrainment on daily rhythm of locomotor activity in goats

We studied the photic (L/D cycle) and non‐photic (restricted feeding) entrainment on the patterns of daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in goats. Six female Maltese goats were subjected to three different artificial L/D cycles: 12/12 L/D, 12/12 D/L and constant light. During the 12/12 L/D and 12/12 D/L, food and water were available ad […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 28, 2010


Evaluation of total locomotor activity and oxidative markers daily rhythms in sheep

For our study, five clinically healthy Comisana sheep, housed individually in a soundproof light-tight box, were exposed to artificial photoperiod (12/12 light/dark). Locomotor activity was continuously recorded and blood samples were collected every 3 h over a 24 h period. On blood samples, reactive oxygen metabolites (dRoms), antioxidant barrier (Oxy-ads) and thiol-antioxydant barrier (SHp) were […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 4, 2010


Daily locomotor activity in five domestic animals

The aim of this study was to compare locomotor activity in five domestic animals. Five female Comisana sheep, five female Maltese goats, five female Bruna cows, and five female Thoroughbred horses were housed separately in a soundproof box equipped with an airflow system and five female Blue Vienna rabbits were individually housed in metallic cages. […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: January 1, 2010


Daily rhythms of 25 physiological variables in Bos taurus maintained under natural conditions

To further understanding of the multiple temporal relationships of the physiological process, we monitored simultaneously 25 different variables in individual cows. We used 6 Bruna Italiana non – pregnant and non – lactating cows from the same farm. The animals were housed individually in a 12 m2 box under natural 14/10 light/dark cycle. They were […]

Related Product: Actiwatch Mini

Publication Date: March 15, 2009


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