Publications

CamNtech Research Library

CamNtech products have been trusted by specialist researchers for over 25 years.

Our research library contains peer reviewed publications citing the use of our devices.

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Found 41 Results

Wearable Devices Suitable for Monitoring Twenty Four Hour Heart Rate Variability in Military Populations

Heart rate variability (HRV) measurements provide information on the autonomic nervous system and the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. A high HRV can be advantageous, reflecting the ability of the autonomic nervous system to adapt, whereas a low HRV can be indicative of fatigue, overtraining or health issues. There has been a surge in […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: February 4, 2021


Assessment of energy expenditure during high intensity cycling and running using a heart rate and activity monitor in young active adults

Objective Although high intensity physical activities may represent a great proportion of the total energy expenditure in active people, only sparse studies have investigated the accuracy of wearable monitors to assess activity related energy expenditure (AEE) during high intensity exercises. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of the Actiheart, […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: November 7, 2019


Validity of the Actiheart step test for the estimation of maximum oxygen consumption in endurance athletes and healthy controls.

Submaximal step tests are often used for estimation of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in humans. The validity of the Actiheart step test for VO2 max estimation was not fully studied yet. Therefore, purpose of the study was to estimate VO2 max using the Actiheart step test and to compare the data with measured VO2 max […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: March 12, 2019


Harmonisation of Physical Activity Variables by Indirect Validation: A Doubly Labelled Water Study

Harmonisation of data for pooled analysis relies on the principle of inferential equivalence between variables from different sources. Ideally, this is achieved using models of the direct relationship with gold standard criterion measures, but the necessary validation data are often unavailable. This study examines an alternative method of harmonisation by indirect validation. Starting methods were […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 4, 2019


How well do activity monitors estimate energy expenditure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of current technologies

Objective To determine the accuracy of wrist and arm-worn activity monitors’ estimates of energy expenditure (EE). Data sources SportDISCUS (EBSCOHost), PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (EBSCOHost), Embase (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCOHost). Design A random effects meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the difference in EE estimates between activity monitors and criterion measurements. Moderator analyses were conducted to […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: September 7, 2018


Level of agreement between physical activity levels measured by ActiHeart and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in persons with intellectual disability

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of agreement between objective physical activity (PA) (ActiHeart®) and subjective proxy-respondent International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version (IPAQ-S) data in adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Method: Fifty-eight participants wore ActiHeart® monitors for seven consecutive days. Caregivers of each participant completed the IPAQ-S on behalf of […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 1, 2018


An original piecewise model for computing energy expenditure from accelerometer and heart rate signals

Objective: Activity energy expenditure (EE) plays an important role in healthcare, therefore, accurate EE measures are required. Currently available reference EE acquisition methods, such as doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, are complex, expensive, uncomfortable, and/or difficult to apply on real time. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this paper is to propose a […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: July 28, 2017


Perceived and objectively measured physical activity in high school students: is there any link between aerobic fitness, psychological responses and acute exercise?

Background and aim The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of physical activity and sedentary time from the self-administered, long version of the IPAQ with an objective measure of them using an accelerometer in a high school student’s sample. The present study also examined whether the amount of physical activity and sedentary […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: April 1, 2017


Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: February 24, 2017


Validation of total daily energy expenditure calculated with Actiheart against doubly labeled water method in Costa Rican schoolchildren

The purpose of this study was to use the measurement of the PAEE taken from Actiheart in order to calculate the TEE in Costa Rican schoolchildren, and at the same time, to determine the effectiveness when it is compared against the TEE obtained by the DLW. A total of sixteen male schoolchildren were measured for […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: October 8, 2015


Estimation of free-living energy expenditure by heart rate and movement sensing: a doubly-labelled water study

Background Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR) and acceleration (ACC) sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE) which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE). Objective To evaluate estimates of EE using ACC and HR data […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: September 8, 2015


Comparison of total energy expenditure assessed by two devices in controlled and free-living conditions

The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of total energy expenditure (TEE) provided by Actiheart® and Armband®. Normal-weight adult volunteers wore both devices either for 17 hours in a calorimetric chamber (CC, n = 49) or for 10 days in free-living conditions (FLC) outside the laboratory (n = 41). The two devices […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 1, 2015


Accuracy of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for assessing energy expenditure in free-living adults during a double-blind crossover caffeine trial using doubly labeled water as the reference method

Background/Objectives: A combined heart rate (HR) and motion sensor (Actiheart) has been proposed as an accurate method for assessing total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). However, the extent to which factors such as caffeine may affect the accuracy by which the estimated HR-related PAEE contribution will affect TEE and PAEE estimates […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 1, 2015


Reliability and validity of the Questionnaire on Annual Physical Activity Pattern: A validation study using combined heart rate and accelerometry data as an objective measurement

Introduction Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable lifestyle factor with great public health potential. However, it is still unclear which type, intensity, and temporal pattern of PA is most beneficial. Therefore, a Questionnaire on Annual Physical Activity Pattern (QUAP) for healthy adults was developed; focusing on a detailed assessment of past year PA.The aim was […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: December 31, 2014


Validity of electronically administered Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) in ten European countries

Objective To examine the validity of the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) which assesses physical activity (PA) in 4 domains (leisure, work, commuting, home) during past month. Methods 580 men and 1343 women from 10 European countries attended 2 visits at which PA energy expenditure (PAEE), time at moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time were […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: March 25, 2014


Evaluation of Actiheart and a 7 d activity diary for estimating free-living total and activity energy expenditure using criterion methods in 1· 5-and 3-year-old children

Accurate and easy-to-use methods to assess free-living energy expenditure in response to physical activity in young children are scarce. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of (1) 4 d recordings obtained using the Actiheart (mean heart rate (mHR) and mean activity counts (mAC)) to provide assessments of total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: February 6, 2014


Validation of SenseWear Armband and ActiHeart monitors for assessments of daily energy expenditure in free‐living women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

To provide individually adapted nutritional support to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), objective and reliable methods must be used to assess patient energy requirements. The aim of this study was to validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA) and ActiHeart (AH) monitors for assessing total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: November 26, 2013


Evaluations of Actiheart, IDEEA® and RT3 monitors for estimating activity energy expenditure in free-living women

Activity energy expenditure (AEE) during free-living conditions can be assessed using devices based on different principles. To make proper comparisons of different devices’ capacities to assess AEE, they should be evaluated in the same population. Thus, in the present study we evaluated, in the same group of subjects, the ability of three devices to assess […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: September 6, 2013


Measuring activity energy expenditure: accuracy of the GT3X+ and Actiheart monitors

The purpose was to determine the accuracy of the GT3X+ and Actiheart monitors for estimating energy expenditure (EE) and steps. Additionally, to investigate agreement between waist- and wrist-mounted GT3X+ EE outputs. Nineteen participants (mean age=30) completed three treadmill walking trials at self-selected slow, medium, and fast speeds while wearing two GT3X+ (waist and wrist) and […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: July 16, 2013


Estimation of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Children during Stimulated Free-living Activities: Precision of the ActiHeart Sensor

The validity of the Actiheart – a combined heart rate and movement sensor – for assessing physical activity energy expenditure has been demonstrated in older children during treadmill walking and running and in a limited range of ‘lifestyle’ physical activities (Corder et al., 2005, 2007). Our aim was to evaluate the precision of the Actiheart […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: June 26, 2013


Validation of the Actical and Actiheart monitor in ambulatory children with Spina Bifida

Background Ambulatory children with Spina Bifida (SB) often show a decline in physical activity leading to deconditioning and functional decline. Therefore, assessment and promotion of physical activity is important. Because energy expenditure during activities is higher in these children, the use of existing pediatric equations to predict physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) may not be […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: April 15, 2013


Validity of combining heart rate and uniaxial acceleration to measure free-living physical activity energy expenditure in young men

Combining accelerometry (ACC) with heart rate (HR) monitoring is thought to improve activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimations compared with ACC alone to evaluate the validity of ACC and HR used alone or combined. The purpose of this study was to estimate AEE in free-living conditions compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Ten-day free-living AEE was […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: December 1, 2012


Actiheart based estimates of body expenditure are accurate during treadmill walking, arm ergometry and bicycle ergometry

The Actiheart system (CamNtech Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge UK) is a small portable device that collects ECG derived heart rate and 3-dimensional accelerometer data, and uses these data to estimate body energy expenditure (BEE). High levels of accuracy for Actiheart based estimates of BEE have been reported over a range of daily activities. However, with the […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: December 1, 2012


Validation of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers for the assessment of physical activity in preschool children

Purpose: Given the unique physical activity (PA) patterns of preschoolers, wearable electronic devices for quantitative assessment of physical activity require validation in this population. Study objective was to validate uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers in preschoolers. Methods: Room calorimetry was performed over 3 hours in 64 preschoolers, wearing Actical, Actiheart, and RT3 accelerometers during play, slow, […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: September 1, 2012


Validation of the Actiheart for estimating physical activity related energy expenditure in pregnancy

Background & aims The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the individually calibrated Actiheart (a combined heart rate and movement sensor device), in pregnant women against indirect calorimetry in a laboratory setting. Methods Ten healthy pregnant women (aged 32.9 ± 3.2 yrs, pre-pregnancy BMI = 21.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2, 36.9 ± […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: February 14, 2012


Criterion validity of a 10-category scale for ranking physical activity in Norwegian women

Background Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) is critical to establish dose-response relationships with various health outcomes. We compared the self-administered PA questionnaire from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC) with a criterion method in middle-aged Norwegian women. Methods A sample of 177 randomly recruited healthy women attended two clinical visits approximately 4-6 months […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 19, 2012


Validity of a short questionnaire to assess physical activity in 10 European countries

To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 1, 2012


Evaluation of two portable sensors for energy expenditure assessment during high-intensity running

The correct assessment of individual energy requirements of athletes remains a challenge. Available literature indicates that accelerometry-based sensors underestimated energy expenditure in athletes, especially during high-intensity exercise. The goal of our study was to evaluate two commercially available devices (Actiheart; SenseWear Pro3) during high-intensity running and to identify potential sources of error. Twenty-nine male endurance- […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: November 17, 2011


Total Energy Expenditure: Combined Heart Rate and Motion Sensor vs Uni-Axial Accelerometry Models

Objective. To compare total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) from accelerometry models and combined heart rate with motion sensor. Methods. Twenty male subjects were involved in this study (25.5 5.3 years; 73.2 9.9 kg). TDEE was measured using a combined heart rate (HR) monitor with a motion sensor (Actiheart), and the corresponding equations for the Actigraph […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: November 2, 2011


Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions-a pilot study

Objective A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: April 12, 2011


A comparison of energy expenditure estimates from the Actiheart and Actical physical activity monitors during low intensity activities, walking, and jogging

Combining accelerometry with heart rate monitoring has been suggested to improve energy estimates, however, it remains unclear whether the single, currently existing commercially available device combining these data streams (Actiheart) provides improved energy estimates compared to simpler and less expensive accelerometry-only devices. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of the heart […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: April 1, 2011


Accuracy and validity of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for the measurement of free-living physical activity energy expenditure in adults in Cameroon

Background The increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) warrants rigorous studies of contributing lifestyle factors. Combined heart rate (HR) and movement monitoring make it possible to objectively measure physical activity in free-living individuals. We examined the validity of a combined HR and motion sensor in estimating physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: February 1, 2011


Validation of the Actiheart monitor for the measurement of physical activity

The Actiheart monitor uniquely allows simultaneous measurement of heart rate and movement counts. The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence for the Actiheart monitor under laboratory and free-living conditions. A total of 34 college students (17 males and 17 females, age = 21.8 ± 3.6 years) participated in the study. In the […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 15, 2009


Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity

Combining accelerometry with heart rate (HR) monitoring may improve precision of physical activity measurement. Considerable variation exists in the relationships between physical activity intensity (PAI) and HR and accelerometry, which may be reduced by individual calibration. However, individual calibration limits feasibility of these techniques in population studies, and less burdensome, yet valid, methods of calibration […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: August 1, 2007


Accuracy of the Actiheart for the assessment of energy expenditure in adults.

Background/Objective: The Actiheart (Mini Mitter, Sunriver, OR, USA) uses heart rate (HR) and activity data to predict activity energy expenditure (AEE). Currently, the Actiheart has only been tested during laboratory conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate the Actiheart prediction method against indirect calorimetry during a wide range of activities in a […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: April 18, 2007


Assessment of low-to-moderate intensity physical activity thermogenesis in young adults using synchronized heart rate and accelerometry with branched-equation modeling

Low-to-moderate intensity physical activity thermogenesis is a highly variable and quantitatively important component of total energy expenditure that is difficult to assess outside the laboratory. Greater precision and accuracy in the measurement of this key contributor to energy balance is a research priority. We developed a laboratory-based protocol that simulated a range of low-to-moderate intensity […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: April 1, 2006


Integration of physiological and accelerometer data to improve physical activity assessment

PURPOSE:Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) is a prerequisite to determine dose-response relationships between activity and health. The combination of HR and accelerometers (ACC) holds promise for improving the accuracy of PA assessment, but it is unclear how currently proposed modeling techniques compare and to what extent different levels of individual calibration (IC) of HR […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: November 1, 2005


Comparison of PAEE from combined and separate heart rate and movement models in children

PURPOSE:Accurate measurement of physical activity in children is a challenge. Combining physiological (e.g., heart rate (HR)) and body movement registration (e.g., accelerometry) may overcome limitations with either method used alone. This study aimed to compare the estimated physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) from hip- and ankle-mounted MTI Actigraphs, a hip-mounted Actical, and a new combined […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: October 1, 2005


Measurement of energy expenditure during laboratory and field activities

This dissertation was designed to examine the validity of heart rate (HR) and motion sensors for estimating energy expenditure (EE) during activities ranging from sedentary behaviors to vigorous exercise. A secondary purpose was to devise new ways to improve on current methods of estimating EE. Specific aims of the dissertation were: (1) to examine the […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: August 1, 2005


Reliability and validity of the combined heart rate and movement sensor Actiheart

Accurate quantification of physical activity energy expenditure is a key part of the effort to understand disorders of energy metabolism. The Actiheart, a combined heart rate (HR) and movement sensor, is designed to assess physical activity in populations. Objective: To examine aspects of Actiheart reliability and validity in mechanical settings and during walking and running. […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: February 16, 2005


Branched equation modeling of simultaneous accelerometry and heart rate monitoring improves estimate of directly measured physical activity energy expenditure

The combination of heart rate (HR) monitoring and movement registration may improve measurement precision of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Previous attempts have used either regression methods, which do not take full advantage of synchronized data, or have not used movement data quantitatively. The objective of the study was to assess the precision of branched […]

Related Product: Actiheart

Publication Date: January 1, 2004


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CamNtech Ltd.
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